These images were all created using CAD (computer aided Design) software.
CAD allows you to create a 3D model in the computer that can be manipulated in a wide variety of ways and then output renderings. This software is primarily intended for use by engineers and designers but it can also be a powerful illustration tool. It takes a lot of effort to generate the model, but once it's done you can do just about anything you want.
I'm using Microstation; it's not very widely used, but it is similar to AutoCAD. I'm a technical illustrator by profession. And I was first exposed to this software in 83 at work. At this time it was VAX based, and you needed to use a dedicated workstation that looked something like a drafting table with two 13 inch monitors attached to the back of the board. The rendering capabilities were pretty rudimentary. And the only way we could get images out of the system was to take photos of the screen. The software was converted to a PC application about 10 yrs ago and it's rendering capabilities have improved tremendously.
Cad is not necessarily the best tool
for this kind of work.
Most illustrators use 3D modelers like 3D Studio Max and Light wave, applications that were specifically designed for the purpose of creating